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Gynecomastia

Definition

Gynecomastia is an enlargement of the breasts in men. This condition is not the same as having a fatty breast area from obesity. The breast tissue is firm in men with gynecomastia.
This may occur in up to one-third of men. About 65% of boys will develop some degree of breast enlargement during puberty. This is normal and usually goes away by age 18.
Gynecomastia
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Causes

All men produce male and female hormones. Normally, men produce much more male hormones than female hormones. Gynecomastia is caused by an imbalance in the female and male hormones. The hormone imbalance can be caused by:

Risk Factors

Gynecomastia is more common in adolescents or in men over age 50. Other factors that increase your chance of gynecomastia include:

Symptoms

Symptoms of gynecomastia include:

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your doctor will focus on your weight, breast exam, testicular exam, and any other signs of a hormone problem. You may be referred to a doctor who specializes in hormone disorders.
Other tests may be done if you have prolonged or large gynecomastia.
Your bodily fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:
Images may be taken of your chest. This can be done with:

Treatment

Treatment for gynecomastia is rarely needed. However, it is important to find and treat the underlying cause of the gynecomastia. If a medication is causing gynecomastia, your doctor will ask you to stop taking it or to switch medication. If a tumor is causing the problem, your doctor will make a treatment plan for the tumor.
Medications may be used if needed to treat the gynecomastia. However, they can produce unwanted side effects. Surgery may also be used to remove breast tissue.

Prevention

Some gynecomastia may be prevented by avoiding known risk factors. This includes avoiding:

RESOURCES

Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org

Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.healthychildren.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

Men's Health Centre http://www.menshealthcentre.net

References

Gynecomastia. American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/gynecomastia.html. Updated December 2010. Accessed July 18, 2013.

Gynecomastia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 19, 2013. Accessed July 18, 2013.

Johnson RE, Kermott CA, et al. Gynecomastia: evaluation and current treatment options. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2011;7:145-148.

Wollina U, Goldman A. Minimally invasive esthetic procedures of the male breast. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2011;10(2):150-155.

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